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Gynecology is a branch of medicine that deals with the diseases and routine physical care of the reproductive system of women. It includes the following along with many more:

  • tumors, 
  • cervical diseases, 
  • ovarian cysts, 
  • polyps, 
  • infertility and related treatments, 
  • genital infections, 
  • contraceptive methods, 
  • menstrual pain, 
  • menstrual disorders, 
  • urinary incontinence,
  • uterine prolapse, 
  • menopause, 
  • gynecological cancers.

It is advised for all women to undergo a gynecological examination which includes examining the external genital area, a pelvic examination, and cervical examination when a person is sexually active which should be at least once a year. However, if the patient is not sexually active, an abdominal examination can be performed or can be done after noticing symptoms or having any complaints.

A Pap smear test is a medical procedure in which a sample of cells from a women’s cervix is collected and examined under a microscope in order to look for pre-malignant or malignant changes (it screens for cervical cancer). It does not matter if the person is sexually active or not, it is advised to take this test annually. 

Pregnancy Tracking

A pregnancy of 42 weeks can be easier if there is constant tracking and monitoring to expectant mothers. Medical, physical, and biological monitoring of the condition of the mother and baby should be the number 1 priority to any expecting mother. Tracking can aid in discovering any risks and finding a solution to it beforehand. 

Pregnancy tracking can be divided into 4 phases:

  • Pre-pregnancy tracking:
  • Consulting a specialist to make sure that her health is suited for pregnancy.
  • Lifestyle changes should be made and anything harmful should be eliminated.
  • Starting to take folic acid or other vitamins/minerals. 
  • Pregnancy tracking: 
  • Certain examinations and screenings are made during the pregnancy in specified time intervals. 
  • Blood pressure, weight and maternal health are monitored all throughout the pregnancy period.
  • The growth of the baby is monitored as well as its position in the womb.
  • Pregnancy Tracking During Birth:
  • Ensuring no stress is experienced by either the baby or the mother and that they are comfortable.
  • Breathing and strain techniques should be explained by the doctor.
  • Postpartum Pregnancy Tracking:

Support is given concerning nutrition and vaginal care, as well as appropriate rest routines during baby care. This period lasts about 8 weeks, and the professionals help to ensure the physical/mental changes of the newborn and the mother.

Gynecological Cancers

As breast cancer occupies the most common type of cancers in women, gynecological cancers come in second and they include:

  • Uterine cancer: a malignant tumor of the uterus which occurs most often in women between the ages of 55 and 70. Diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure and polycystic ovary syndrome also increase the risk factors for uterine cancer.
  • Cervical cancer: Cancer that forms in tissues of the cervix. Cervical cancer is almost always caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. The diagnosis can be made with smear scans, vaccination, or routine exams
  • Ovarian cancer: Cancer that forms in tissues of the ovary, most ovarian cancers are either ovarian epithelial cancers or malignant germ cell tumors.
  • Vulvar cancer: Cancer of the vulva (the external female genital organs, including the clitoris, vaginal lips, and the opening to the vagina).  Symptoms include genital itching, swelling, and wound-like formations.
  • Vaginal cancer: Cancer that forms in the tissues of the vagina (birth canal). Symptoms include Painless bleeding and discharge of unknown causes. 

Frequent checkups and examinations should be made regularly by women in order to detect the illness earlier. Medical, surgical, chemotherapy or radiotherapy techniques can be used to treat gynecological cancers.


Hysteroscopy is a procedure that involves direct visual inspection of cervical canal and uterine cavity, it is vital in identifying gynecological diseases. It can be useful for diagnosis and treatment of septum, polypectomy, myomectomy, and uterine adhesions and should be performed after the menstrual period. Like any other medical treatment, hysteroscopy includes some risks such as Puncture in the uterus, injury to the cervix, excessive bleeding, and uterine infection. 

There are two types of hysteroscopy, diagnostic and operative. Diagnostic is to diagnose problems of the uterus and to detect infertility and recurrent miscarriages. Operative is to treat uterine adhesions, myomas and abnormal structures.


Laparoscopy is a surgical procedure applied with a closed technique in which a fiber-optic instrument is inserted through the abdominal wall to view the organs in the abdomen. It can be used for diagnosis and treatments. Diagnostic laparoscopy is used to diagnose diseases with unknown causes 

Laparoscopy can be performed in the majority of female diseases such as 

  • ectopic pregnancy, 
  • myoma, 
  • infertility treatment, 
  • removal of the uterus, 
  • uterine prolapse, and 
  • gynecological cancer types. 

Patients diagnosed with pelvic inflammatory disease, with excessive pain or bleeding during the menstrual period, with an abdominal cyst or tumor, requiring the removal of the gallbladder or uterus, requiring the removal of the organs affected by various cancers are all candidates who are suitable for laparoscopic gynecological surgeries.


Urogynecology a specialized field of gynecology and obstetrics that deals with female urological problems as pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery. Urogynecology encompasses the complaints of active bladder, pelvic organ prolapse and urinary incontinence in women. Factors that can lead to urinary incontinence are sagging of genital organs, advanced age, chronic and genetic diseases. Urinary incontinence comes in three types, stress, urge, and mixed incontinence. Surgical or medical treatment methods can be applied for urinary incontinence.

Genital Aesthetics

Genital aesthetics are aesthetic operations performed on the genital area related to the sexual organs in women. These include:

  • Labiaplasty is a surgery to reduce the size of the labia minora – the flaps of skin either side of the vaginal opening.
  • Inner lip prolapse surgery is performed under local anesthesia or general anesthesia, and it lasts about 30 minutes.
  • Vaginoplasty is a procedure that aims to tighten a vagina that has become slack or loose from vaginal childbirth or aging.
  • Treatment of Postpartum Scars.
  • Hymenoplasty – Hymen Reconstruction is the temporary surgical restoration of the hymen. It is possible as long as the torn hymen parts are not missing.

Gynecology is the science that studies women’s health and diseases. It is a branch of science that excludes obstetrics, that is, obstetrics and related pathologies, but also includes oncology at a point in medical faculties, where education is mostly given by the department of obstetrics and gynecology.


Department of Gynecology, menstrual period diseases, sexual dysfunctions, infertility, vaginal problems, placental disorders, birth problems, pregnancy follow-up, miscarriage, uterine diseases, ovarian problems, birth control methods, external genital organs, cyst and fibroid operations, normal It carries out the follow-up, diagnosis and treatment of many gynecological diseases and pregnancy processes such as cesarean section and cesarean delivery.

Diagnosed and treated diseases
  • Periodic gynecological examinations,
  • Breast diseases
  • Ultrasonographic examinations
  • Diagnosis and treatment of hormonal disorders
  • Cancer screenings (ultrasound, blood tests, smear test, HPV test)
  • Personalized family planning methods (intrauterine device application, birth control pill, sterilization attempts)
  • Premarital gynecological examination
All of the personnel I came in contact with, went above and beyond to help me with my medical problems. I am now enjoying a more active lifestyle and no longer feel the discomfort in chest.
Betty Ballesteros Rendon— Gynecologist

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